9, upper right-hand photo:
Photo shows a factory-made P-1A, not one modified from a P-1.
The clue is the tan-coloured edge beading and the sand-coloured
chinstrap. P-1 helmets have black edge beading and when modified
to P-1A they usually have olive-drab chin and nape straps.
Page 12, upper left-hand photo:
Caption should be changed from "...except for the addition
of a nape strap" to "...except for the addition of a
nape AND CHIN strap".
Page 13, upper left-hand and right-hand photos:
Photos show an (early? - OD chinstrap) P-1A. The P-2 was an
experimental design with separate cloth inner helmet.
Page 13, lower left-hand photo:
Correct service designation for this helmet would be P-4A, while
a collector would term it a P-1B that has been T.O. upgraded to
Page 14, all photos:
This helmet has been upgraded with H-75 series comms as
evidenced by the two screws, string, and rubber stud on each
side of the helmet, and the larger type microphone plug cover on
the lower left side. It is therefore in P-4 configuration.
It looks as if it has been T.O. updated from a P-3. The small
hole on the lower right side just behind the chinstrap
attachment suggests, however, that it has been fitted with P-3
standard HS-38 or HS-38A comms. Correct service designation for
this helmet would be P-4, while a collector would term it a P-3
that has been T.O. upgraded to P-4.
The caption under the upper left-hand photo is wrong. The visor
is an original P-3 feature from 1951, not a retrofit to factory
made P-3s. The visor shown in the photos is in collector-terms
called Type II, and it is typical of the P-4 helmet. It would
have been more correct to show a P-3 with the so-called Type I
visor which has a square metal flange protruding upwards from
the centre of the visor yoke. The Type I visor is also
characterised by its shorter J-arms on the sides making the
visor lens hang slightly down into the pilot's field of vision.
Page 16, middle photo caption and lower left caption:
The MBU-3/P was not just a USAF re-designation of the MS22001
oxygen mask. The MBU-3/P is based on the MS22001 but it has been
modified including changing the MC-3A oxygen connector to the
MS27796 three-pin connector and CRU-8/P connection block.
Page 20, all photos:
The MB-4 does not have a visor. When an MB-4 has a visor fitted
it becomes a P-4A. Correct service designation for this helmet
is therefore P-4A, while a collector would term it an MB-4
modified to P-4A.
Around 1980 the designation of the single visor helmet based on
the HGU-22/P shell became HGU-26/P like the dual-visor version.
The APH-5A is based on the same shell as the HGU-2 series
Page 29 and 38:
The correct designations for these headsets end on AIC, not A1C.
It is an abbreviation of Aircraft Interphone Communications and
is taken from the Joint Electronics Type Designations System (JETDS).
The full explanation can be found at http://www.designation-systems.net/usmilav/electronics.html
The centre visor locking track of the Toptex 3BM helmet is not
similar to the P-4B helmet visor. There are no locking holes in
the Toptex visor track.
Page 35, upper left photo caption:
PRU-36/P is the designation of the complete double-visor, not
only the visor housing.
Page 35, lower left photo:
HGU-22/P is not a helmet in its own right. It is only the
designation of the helmet shell used for HGU-2A/P and HGU-26/P
Page 42, upper caption:
The HGU-36/P helmet is not an HGU-55/P derivative. Its shell is
shaped like the HGU-22/P shell but it is ballistic. The MBU-12/P
did not replace the USN MS22001 mask; the Navy use masks based
on the MBU-12/P but they differ in configuration and therefore
also in designation.
Page 44, upper photos:
This early HGU-55/P has the original thin leather edgeroll
whereas the helmet shown on page 43 has the later thick edgeroll..
The EEU-2A/P nuclear flash protection goggles were used earlier
on HGU-26/P helmets.
Page 46, upper right hand photo and both below:
Apart from the paintwork, modifications to the Thunderbirds
HGU-55/P helmet include a black leather edgeroll instead of the
grey standard, chrome-plated cast aluminium oxygen mask
receivers and a US Navy standard EEK-4A/P single visor housing
as used on e.g. HGU-33/P and HGU-34/P helmets.
Page 47, caption for upper left hand photo:
The correct designation for the night vision goggles is
AN/AVS-6. They are also known as Aviators Night Vision Imaging
Page 71, lower right photo caption:
The correct spelling of the pilot's name is Iven C. Kincheloe.
Page 87, photo caption:
The H-1 helmet was superseded by the H-2 helmet, which was an
integrated design like the H-1. The H-2 helmet shell was similar
to the H-3 with reinforcing ridges. The H-3 and H-4 helmets were
not integrated but had a separate cloth inner helmet with
communications and an outer hard-shell protective helmet.
The APH-5 helmet is based on the same helmet shell as the
The VTAS I system was later installed on helmets based on the
PRK-37 shell. When the shell was drilled for the VTAS I system
it became a PRK-41/P shell, and the complete helmet became an
The helmet in the photos is not a modified HGU-20/P and it is
not designated HGU-15/P in the shown configuration. The HGU-15/P
was a USAF forerunner of the USN HGU-20/P. The helmet in these
photos is one of 16 HGU-15/Ps modified for a 1971 study on
helmets for use under chemical and biological warfare
The first VTAS II helmet was designated HGU-37/P. It is unclear
how the HGU-37/P and HGU-46/P differ from each other.
The correct designation for the night vision goggles is
AN/AVS-6. They are also known as Aviator Night Vision Infrared
Page 143-147 and 153:
The manufacturer's name is spelled 'Gueneau', not 'Guereau'.
Page 155, lower caption:
The Polish helicopter helmet is designated THL-5CN.
This series of helmets can be called the Sh-50 series. The Z
& L designators (ShL-50 and ShZ-50) simply differentiate
between summer (L) or winter (Z). The winter helmets are lined
with a heavy fur and the summer
ones have no liner. Otherwise the helmets are identical. In
order to be clear on these, there are four different primary
types of helmets in this series.
- Sh-61 (also called the Sh-50a)
The helmets shown on this page are either the ShL-78 or ShL-82
for the top two pictures and an ShL-61 for the bottom pictures.
The ShL-50 did not have the foam ridge on top and had a double
strap arrangement on the back. The ShL-61 added the foam ridge
(to keep the ZSh-3 hard shell in place). Note the difference
between the back of the ShL-78 or –82 and the back of the
ShL-61. The ShL-78 or –82 has a single strap on the back.
The Sh-50 used the KM-15 mask exclusively. It had no additional
clips or receivers to hold a mask. The –61 was upgraded for
use with the KM-16 mask. This upgrade is notable in the addition
of the forehead clip and cheek
clips. This style of clip was also used on the later KM-32 O-2
mask (see page 157 upper right). The mask married up with the
helmet as opposed to being held onto the pilot's face by means
of its own straps.
The goggles on the left, affectionately called "bug
eyes" by Russian pilots have the designation of PO-1M.
The ZSh-3 is formed by a Sh-61 or newer leather helmet. The
original Sh-50 was not used with the ZSh-3 until after the foam
ridge was added. Once the ridge was added and the O-2 mask clips
put in place, the helmet was designated the Sh-61.
The air bag is called an occipital bladder. It fits into a pouch
in the back of the leather helmets – Sh-61, -78, and –82.
The helmet shown in the lower left picture is the ZSh-3B – the
B means Bronirovannyj or Armoured. The visor is a twin visor
system – the first full face visor is shatter resistant and
the second visor is a sun visor that covers only the eyes. The
sun visor is a dark charcoal in colour.
The wooden shipping container is for a ZSh-3M, Size 2 (1-small,
2-medium, and 3-large are possible), the serial number, the size
of the O-2 mask (this one is size 3, sizes 1-5 are possible),
the inner helmet (this would be an Sh-82) size of 57 (European
hat size, roughly equates to size 7 U.S.), and the date of
manufacture of September 1990.
In the upper right picture, note the hood beneath the helmet.
Two different hoods were issued with each helmet. One, shown
here is the winter hood. The other hood was simply a cotton
skull cap (shown on page 165).
The BMSK should read VMSK-4 flight suit. Also, throughout the
section on Soviet/Russian helmets – the LA-3 and LA-5 throat
microphones should be used interchangeably as they are nearly
identical. The LA-3 is chamois and the LA-5 is leather.
The designation of ZSh-7LP should read ZSh-7AP.
Caption stating BMSK should read VMSK. The KM-35 is also used in
the Su-27N (naval variant). And note that not all KM-35 masks
have "KM-35" on the outer shell. The primary colour on
the masks is Grey. Black is rare. The hard shell used for the
KM-34D Series II mask is the same as the shell used for the
Helmet designation should read ZSh-7AP.
No comments (not enough information on the GSh-4 – although
the designation of GSh-4AA might not be correct).
The right side pictures show the sizes of the helmet (both hard
shell and inner communications) as 2B and 2M. The GSh-6 comes in
numerous sizes – sizes 1, 2, and 3, small (designated as M),
medium (no designator letter), and large (designated as B).
The helmet shown here is the GSh-6A. The orange skirt is used
exclusively with the VMSK-4 flight suit, which is used during
flights. The Green skirt is used with the VKK-6M.
The –6LP has eight lugs. There is no such variant as the
British helmet designations use Arabic numerals, not Roman. They
are therefore Mk.1A/M, Mk.2A, Mk.3A/B, Mk.4, and Mk.5
The Mk.3A helmet was equipped with a microphone for helicopter
use. Mk.3B had hooks for oxygen mask attachment
The Mk.5 helmet was used by Tornado-crews, and it was produced
by M.L. Aviation.